Sunday, July 11, 2004

ARTICLE 19

1. States Parties shall take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to protect the child from all forms of physical and mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment maltreatment or exploitation including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other persons who has the care of the child.

2. Such protective measures should, as appropriate, include effective procedures for the establishment of social programmes to provide necessary support for the child and for those who have the care of the child, as well as for other forms of prevention and for identification, reporting, referral, investigation, treatment and follow-up of instances of child maltreatment described heretofore, and, as appropriate, for judicial involvement.

12. In support of her submission, learned counsel has referred to following passage of statutory interpretation by F.A.R. Bennion (Butterworths -- 1984) at page 355-357 :

"While it remains law, an Act is to be treated as always speaking. In its application on any date, the language of the Act, though necessarily embedded in its own time, is nevertheless to be construed in accordance with the need to treat it as current law.

It is presumed that Parliament intends the Court to apply to an ongoing Act a construction that continuously updates its wording to allow for changes since the Act was initially framed.

In particular where, owing to developments occurring since the original passing of an enactment, a counter-mischief comes into existence or increases, it is presumed that Parliament intends the Court so to construe the enactment as to minimise the adverse effects of the counter-mischief.

The ongoing Act. In construing an ongoing Act, the interpreter is to presume that Parliament intended the Act to be applied at any future time in such a way as to give effect to the true original intention. Accordingly, the interpreter is to make allowances for any relevant changes that have occurred, since the Act's passing, in law, social conditions, technology, the meaning of words, and other matters.

An enactment of former days is thus to be read today, in the light of dynamic processing received over the years, with such modification of the current meaning of its language as will now give effect to the original legislative intention. The reality and effect of dynamic processing provides the gradual adjustment. It is constituted by judicial interpretation, year in and year out. It also comprises processing by executive officials."

In this connection, she has also referred to S. Gopal Reddy v. State of A.P. 1996 (4) SCC 596 where the Court referred to the following words of Lord Denning in Seaford Court Estates Ltd. v. Asher (1949) 2 All ER 153 :

"............... It would certainly save the Judges trouble if Acts of Parliament were drafted with divine prescience and perfect clarity. In the absence of it, when a detect appears a Judge cannot simply fold his hands and blame the draftsman. He must set to work on the constructive task of finding the intention of Parliament, and he must do this not only from the language of the statute, bat also from a consideration of the social conditions which gave rise to it and of the mischief which it was passed to remedy, and then he must supplement the written word so as to give 'force and life' to the intention of the legislature ....... A Judge should ask himself the question how, if the makers of the Act had themselves come across this ruck in the texture of it, they would have straightened it out ? He must then do as they would have done. A Judge must not alter the material of which the Act is woven, but he can and should iron out the creases."

And held that it is a well known rule of interpretation of Statutes that the text and the context of the entire Act must be looked into while interpreting any of the expressions used in a Statute and that the Courts must look to the object which the Statute seeks to achieve while interpreting any of the provisions of the Act and a purposive approach is necessary. Accordingly, the words "at or before or after the marriage as consideration for the marriage" occurring in Section 2 of the Dowry Prohibition Act were interpreted to mean demand of dowry at the "negotiation stage" as a consideration for proposed marriage and "marriage" was held to include the "proposed marriage" that may not have taken place. Reference is also made to Directorate of Enforcement v. Deepak Mahajan and Anr. 1994 (3) SCC 440, wherein it was held that a mere mechanical interpretation of the words devoid of concept or purpose will reduce most of legislation to futil! ity and that it is a salutary rule, well
established, that the intention of the legislature must be found by reading the Statute as a whole. Accordingly, certain provisions of FERA and Customs Act were interpreted keeping in mind that the said enactments were enacted for the economic development of the country and augmentation of revenue. The Court did not accept the literal interpretation suggested by the respondent therein and held that Sub-section (1) and (2) of Section 167 Cr.P.C. are squarely applicable with regard to the production and detention of a person arrested under the provisions of Section 35 of FERA and Section 104 of Customs Act and that a Magistrate has jurisdiction under Section 167(2) Cr.P.C. to authorize detention of a person arrested by an authorised officer of the Enforcement Directorate under FERA and taken to the Magistrate in compliance of Section 35(2) of FERA.

13. Ms. Meenakshi Arora has submitted that this purposive approach is being adopted in some of other countries so that the criminals do not go unscathed on mere technicality of law. She has placed strong reliance on some decisions of House of Lords to substantiate her contentions and the most notable being R v. R (1991) 4 All ER 481 where it was held as under :

"The rule that a husband cannot be criminally liable for raping his wife if he has sexual intercourse with her without her consent no longer forms part of the law of England since a husband and wife are now to be regarded as equal partners in marriage and it is unacceptable that by marriage the wife submits herself irrevocably to sexual intercourse in all circumstances or that it is an incident of modern marriage that the wife consents to intercourse in all circumstances, including sexual intercourse obtained only by force. In Section 1(1) of the Sexual Offences (Amendment) Act, 1976, which defines rape as having 'unlawful' intercourse with a woman without her consent, the word 'unlawful' is to be treated as mere surplusage and not as meaning 'outside marriage', since it is clearly unlawful to have sexual intercourse with any woman without her consent."

The other decision cited by learned counsel is Regina v. Burstow and Regina v. Ireland 1997 (4) All ER 74 where a person accused of repeated silent telephone calls accompanied on occasions by heavy breathing to women was held guilty of causing psychiatric injury amounting to bodily harm under Section 42 of Offences against the Person Act, 1861. In the course of the discussion, Lord Steyn observed that the criminal law has moved on in the light of a developing understanding of the link between the body and psychiatric injury and as a matter of current usage, the contextual interpretation of "inflict" can embrace the idea of one person inflicting psychiatric injury on another. It was further observed that the interpretation and approach should, so far as possible, be adopted which treats the ladder of offences as a coherent body of law. Learned counsel has laid emphasis on the following passage in the judgment :

"The proposition that the Victorian, legislator when enacting Sections 18, 20 and 47 of the Act 1861, would not have had in mind psychiatric illness is no doubt correct. Psychiatry was in its infancy in 1861. But the subjective intention of the draftsman is immaterial. The only relevant enquiry is as to the sense of the words in the context in which they are used. Moreover the Act of 1861 is a statute of the "always speaking" type : the statute must be interpreted in the light of the best current scientific appreciation of the link between the body and psychiatric injury."

It has thus been contended that the words "sexual intercourse" occurring in Section 375 IPC must be given a larger meaning than as traditionally understood having regard to the monstrous proportion in which the cases of child abuse have increased in recent times. She has also referred to a decision of Constitutional Court of South Africa in the National Coalition for Gay and Lesbian Equality and Ors. v. The Minister of Home Affairs and Ors. -- Case CCT 10/99 wherein it was held that Section 25(5) of the Aliens Control Act 96 of 1991, by omitting to confer on persons, who are partners in permanent same sex life partnerships, the benefits it extends to spouses, unfairly discriminates, on the grounds of their sexual orientation and marital status, against partners in such same-sex partnerships who are permanently and lawfully resident in the Republic. Such unfair discrimination limits the equality rights of such partners guaranteed to them by Section 9 of the Constitu! tion and their right to dignity under Section 10. It was further held that it would not be an appropriate remedy to declare the whole of Section 25(5) invalid. Instead, it would be appropriate to read in, after the word "spouse" in the section, the words "or partner, in a permanent same-sex life partnership".

14. Ms. Meenakshi Arora has also placed before the Court the judgments rendered on 10th December, 1998 and 22nd February, 2001 by the International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991. Under Article 5 of the Statute of the International Tribunal, rape is a crime against humanity. Rape may also amount to a grave breach of the Geneva Conventions, a violation of the laws or customs of the war or an act of genocide, if the requisite elements are met and may be prosecuted accordingly. The Trial Chamber after taking note of the fact that no definition of rape can be found in international law, proceeded on the following basis :

"Thus, the Trial Chamber finds that the following may be accepted as the objective elements of rape :

(i) the sexual penetration, however slight :

(a) of the vagina or anus of the victim by the penis of the perpetrator or any other object used by the perpetrator; or

(b) of a mouth of the victim by the penis of the perpetrator;

(ii) by coercion or force or threat of force against the victim or a third person."

In the second judgment of the Trial Chamber dated 22nd February, 2001, the interpretation which focussed on serious violations of a sexual autonomy was accepted.

15. Shri R.N. Trivedi, learned Additional Solicitor General appearing for the respondents, has submitted that International Treaties ratified by India can be taken into account for framing guidelines in respect of enforcement of fundamental rights but only in absence of municipal laws as held in Vishaka v. State of Rajasthan 1997 (6) SCC 241 and Lakshmi Kant Pandey v. Union of India 1984 (2) SCC 244. When laws are already existing, subsequent ratification of International Treaties would not render existing municipal laws ultra vires of Treaties in case of inconsistency. In such an event the State through its legislative wing can modify the law to bring it in accord with Treaty obligations. Such matters are in the realm of State policy and are, therefore, not enforceable in a Court of law. He has further submitted that in International law, ratified Treaties can be deemed interpreted in customary law unless the former are inconsistent with the domestic laws or decisions of it! s
judicial Tribunals. The decision of the International Tribunal for the Crimes committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia cannot be used for interpretation of Section 354 and 375 IPC and other provisions. Even decisions of International Court of Justice are binding only on the parties to a dispute or intervenors in view of Articles 92, 93 and 94 of the UN Charter and Articles 59 and 63 of the IJC Statutes. Learned counsel has also submitted that no writ of mandamus can be issued to the Parliament to amend any law or to bring it in accord with Treaty obligations. He has also submitted that Sections 354 and 375 IPC have been interpreted in innumerable decisions of various High Courts and also of the Supreme Court and the consistent view is that to hold a person guilty of rape, penile penetration is essential. The law on the point is similar both in England and USA. In State of Punjab v. Major Singh 1966 (Supp) SCR 266 it was held that if the hymen is ruptured by inser! ting a
finger, it would not amount to rape. Lastly, it has been submitted that a writ petition under Article 32 of the Constitution would not lie for reversing earlier decisions of the. Court on the supposed ground that a restrictive interpretation has been given to certain provisions of a Statute.

16. In support of his submission Shri Trivedi has placed reliance on Volume 11(1) of Halsbury's Laws of England para 514 (Butterworths --1990) wherein unlawful sexual intercourse with woman without her consent has been held to be an essential ingredient of rape. Reference has also been made to Volume 75 Corpus Juris Secundum para 10, wherein it is stated that sexual penetration of a female is a necessary element of the crime of rape, but the slightest penetration of the body of the female by the sexual organ of the male is sufficient. Learned counsel has also referred to Principles Of Public International Law by Ian Brownlie, where the learned author, after referring to some decisions of English Courts has expressed an opinion that the clear words of a Statute bind the Court even if the provisions are contrary to international law and that there is no such thing as a standard of international law extraneous to the domestic law by a Kingdom and that international law as such ! can
confer no rights cognizable in the municipal courts. Learned counsel has also referred to Dicey and Morris on The Conflict of Laws wherein in the Chapter on the enforcement of foreign law, following Rule has been stated :

"English Courts will not enforce or recognise a right, power, capacity, disability or legal relationship arising under the law of a foreign country, if the enforcement or recognition of such right, power, capacity, disability or legal relationship would be inconsistent with the fundamental public policy of English law."

With regard to penal law, it has been stated as under :

"The common law considers crimes as altogether local, and congnisable and punishable exclusively in the country where they are committed.... Chief Justice Marshall, in delivering the opinion of the Supreme Court, said : 'The Courts of no country execute the penal laws of another'."

17. This Court on 13.1.1998 referred the matter to the Law Commission of India for its opinion on the main issue raised by the petitioner, namely, whether all forms of penetration would come within the ambit of Section 375 IPC or whether any change in statutory provisions need to be made, and if so, in what respect ? The Law Commission had considered some of the matters in its 156th Report and the relevant extracts of the recommendation made by it in the said Report, concerning the issue involved, were placed before the Court. Para 9.59 of the Report reads as under :

"9.59 Sexual-child abuse may be committed in various forms such as sexual intercourse, carnal intercourse and sexual assaults. The cases involving penile penetration into vagina are covered under Section 375 of the IPC. If there is any case of penile oral penetration and penile penetration into anus, Section 377 IPC dealing with unnatural offences, i.e., carnal intercourse against the order of nature with any man, woman or animal, adequately takes care of them. If acts such as penetration of finger or any inanimate object into vagina or anus are committed against a woman or a female child, the provisions of the proposed Section 354 IPC whereunder a more severe punishment is also prescribed can be invoked and as regards the male child, the penal provisions of the IPC concerning 'hurt', 'criminal force' or 'assault' as the case may be, would be attracted. A distinction has to be naturally maintained between sexual assault/use of criminal force falling under Section 354, s! exual offences
falling under Section 375 and unnatural offences falling under Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code. It may not be appropriate to bring unnatural offences punishable under Section 377 IPC or mere sexual assault or mere sexual use of criminal force which may attract Section 354 IPC within the ambit of 'rape' which is a distinct and graver offence with a definite connotation. It is needless to mention that any attempt to commit any of these offences is also punishable by virtue of Section 511 IPC. Therefore, any other or more changes regarding this law may not be necessary."

Regarding Section 377 IPC, the Law Commission recommended that in view of the ongoing instances of sexual abuse in the country where unnatural offences is committed on a person under age of eighteen years, there should be a minimum mandatory sentence of imprisonment for a term not less than two years but may extend to seven years and fine, with a proviso that for adequate and special reasons to be recorded in the judgment, a sentence of less than two years may be imposed. The petitioner submitted the response on the recommendations of the Law Commission. On 10/18.2.2000, this Court again requested the Law Commission to consider the comments of representative organisations (viz. SAKSHI, IFSHA and AIDWA).

18. The main question which requires consideration is whether by a process of judicial interpretation the provisions of Section 375 IPC can be so altered so as to include all forms of penetration such as penile/vaginal penetration, penile/oral penetration, penile/anal penetration, finger/vagina and finger/anal penetration and object/vaginal penetration within its ambit. Section 375 uses the expression "sexual intercourse" but the said expression has not been defined. The dictionary meaning of the word "sexual intercourse" is hetrosexual intercourse involving penetration of the vagina by the penis. The Indian Penal Code was drafted by the First Indian Law Commission of which Lord Mecaulay was the President. It was presented to the Legislative Council in 1856 and was passed on October 6, 1860. The Penal Code has undergone very few changes in the last more than 140 years. Except for clause sixthly of Section 375 regarding the age of the woman (which in view ! of Section 10 denotes a
female human being of any age) no major amendment has been made in the said provision. Sub-section (2) of Section 376 and Sections 376A to 376D were inserted by Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 1983 but Sub-section (2) of Section 376 merely deals with special types of situations and provides for a minimum sentence of 10 years. It does not in any manner alter the definition of 'rape' as given in Section 375 IPC. Similarly, Section 354 which deals with assault or criminal force to woman with intent to outrage her modesty and Section 377 which deals with unnatural offences have not undergone any major amendment.

19. It is well settled principle that the intention of the Legislature is primarily to be gathered from the language used, which means that attention should be paid to what has been said as also to what has not been said. As a consequence a construction which requires for its support addition or substitution of words or which results in rejection of words as meaningless has to be avoided. It is contrary to all rules of construction to read words into an Act unless it is absolutely necessary to do so. Similarly it is wrong and dangerous to proceed by substituting some other words for words of the statute. It is equally well settled that a statute enacting an offence or imposing a penalty is strictly construed. The fact that an enactment is a penal provision is in itself a reason for hesitating before ascribing to phrases used in it a meaning broader than that they would ordinarily bear. (Principles of Statutory Interpretation by Justice G.P. Singh p.58 and 751 Ninth Edition).! (contiued)

1 Comments:

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